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Guidelines For Ceiling & Floor Construction When Building Out A Studio

Often given little thought compared to other parts of the studio, the ceiling and floor are critical. Have you made any of these very avoidable mistakes?

By Bobby Owsinski November 27, 2018

Image courtesy of Klaus Hausmann

When it comes to problems people run into when building studios, few issues top floors and ceilings.

What most musicians and engineers don’t understand, for example, is why low ceilings are usually bad for sound. Or, an equally common question, is it better to cover the studio floor with a rug or leave it hard?

So, hopefully we can offer an explanation to these and a few other issues in this excerpt from The Studio Builder’s Handbook.

The Ceiling

Low ceilings are another frequently encountered factor in a room. While a low ceiling (8 or 9 feet) isn’t that much of a problem in a control room, it’s a different story when it comes to a tracking room for a couple reasons.

This article is provided by Bobby Owsinski.

First of all, the sound from most of the drum kit (especially the cymbals) projects upwards and will splash off the ceiling (especially if it’s a hard surface) back down towards the drums, causing some frequency cancellation and altering the sound of the drums as a result.

Secondly, a low ceiling is the sworn enemy of overhead mics. This is because with an eight foot ceiling (for example), you frequently can’t get the mics up high enough to capture enough of the kit. As a result, the overhead drum kit mics are relegated to being cymbal mics (although this may be OK under the right circumstances).

If you raise the mics up near the low ceiling, you may capture some of those unwanted reflections, thereby altering the sound of the kit. Higher ceilings of at least 10 feet (12 to 15 are best) eliminates these problems, which is why everyone likes recording in studios that have them.

If you’re locked into a room with a low ceiling, the only choice you have is to treat it to either deaden the reflections, or at least make them sound as good as possible.

The Floor

Regardless of the space you’re dealing with and its ultimate use, the question of what to do with the floor always comes up. Should it be soft with carpet or hard and reflective with wood or cement. If you have a choice, you’d rather make the ceiling soft and the floor reflective for several reasons.

First of all, you can always put a throw or area rug down on a hard floor as needed, but an even bigger reason is the psychological aspect. Having a hard surface below our ears gives us a reference point that’s familiar and always consistent, which inherently feels more comfortable to us.

The ceiling doesn’t have to all be soft. You can hang sound panels from the ceiling (sometimes called “clouds”) at the same ratio of placement as on the walls. Just make sure they’re extra secure so no one gets beaned in the middle of a session if one works loose.

For the tracking room, you usually want to keep the floor reflective, so wood or cement is fine. Just put a light carpet under the drums or other acoustic instrument to keep them from moving and also keep the reflections down.

That being said, the smaller the tracking room, the more you want to contain the ambience. That’s because the reflections of a small room usually aren’t that great sounding because of the room modes (as we just saw), and we actually start to hear the smallness of the room.

The more we keep them under control, the better everything in the room will sound.

The Studio Builder’s Handbook

About Bobby

Bobby Owsinski
Bobby Owsinski

Music Industry Veteran and Technical Consultant
Bobby Owsinski is an author, producer, music industry veteran and technical consultant who has written numerous books covering all aspects of audio recording. To read more from Bobby, and to acquire copies of his outstanding books such as The Recording Engineer’s Handbook, be sure to check out his website at


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Lance Kind says

Nice article! When you say "small room," what would that square footage be?

Is there a ratio of room footage versus ceiling height that would be ideal for hardfloor and soft ceiling?

Bruce says

I wondering if a slanted ceiling is beneficial or is flat recommend?

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