Study Hall
Sponsored by
Audio Technica

Backstage Class: Strategies For Festivals

Quickly getting the max from the mix in these tough situations.

By Dave Rat June 18, 2019


Memorize your mic preamp settings for every single channel input. (I’m serious!) If you can’t remember them, then catalog them, save them in files, learn them, know them.

I realize that the popularity of digital consoles and the ability to store and recall settings makes this seem like a waste of time, but hey, if you’re so well established that you get the exact console you want every single gig, then you’re doing better than most of us. I still run into gigs where I have to dial in a mix on the fly.

Know which input channels need pads. Know that the lead vocal has 3dB hotter gain than the other vocals.

Know that the second guitar rig is louder than the main rig. Know the relationship between those gain knobs as if they’re the directions to the catering tent. Practice knowing them. Be able to set the approximate gain levels close to correct without ever hearing a single sound through the console.

Be able to scan across the channels on a digital board and know if one or more gain controls is set incorrectly.

Pay attention to the numeric dB gain numbers written around the gain knob on analog consoles, and the amount of dB gain of a digital console, as well as the rotational positions of those knobs.

Even if you’re working on a board you’ve never seen before, you should be able to set the gains fairly well by checking the gain of your voice on a familiar mic and then adjusting the relative gain settings for the rest of the channels.

Practice this. Know which channels have the pad and/or polarity switches engaged. Take pictures and print them out in case you can’t remember.

Gain is not a mystery, it’s a value, and that value can be transcribed with a reasonable amount of accuracy from one console brand or type to another.


Get a handle on the channel EQs and high-pass filters. If your mic selection and placement is reasonable for the stage sounds being captured, the channel EQ settings should not be drastic.

In fact, more than half the channels should be flat or close to flat, and there should be some distinct patterns. The rack and floor tom mics may have nearly identical EQ or be so close to the same that identical settings can be used.

All of the vocal mics of the same type tend to have the same issues that need to be EQ’ed in a similar fashion.

If one guitar rig is bright and another dull, rather than EQ’ing the difference, alter and label a new mic placement that compensates and brings your guitar channel EQs closer to identical.

Look for trends. If you’re cutting 250 Hz and/or boosting 8 kHz on more than half of the console channels, it’s quite likely that your system EQ needs more 8K and/or less 250.

Make corrections to the system EQ to force as many channel EQs to flat. The goal is to get the sound you want with the least amount of EQ possible.

Aux Sends & Fader Levels

When setting up the console, minor adjustments to the gain knobs can be used to force the faders to all be at that magical nominal 0 dB point.

I take it a step further and set my gains to force the faders into logical positions that correspond to how I want the mix to look on the console – which corresponds to how I want it to sound.

For example, I usually find that if I set the gain of the hi-hat to read 0 on the PFL meter, and then bring the fader up to 0 dB, the hi-hat is usually blasting way too loud.

If I push the hi-hat channel fader down to get the proper level I’m looking for, the fader position is then awkward both ergonomically as well visually.

Plus, the fader sensitivity to small changes is more sensitive at the bottom of its travel. So instead I turn the hi-hat gain down and the fader up until the fader is positioned where I want it.

Typically when I mix, the snare, toms, guitar, and bass faders are all at 0dB, the cymbals, hi-hat, and ride are 5 dB lower in fader position, and the vocals are a bit higher with the lead vocal at the highest position.

This logical visual fader starting point is useful and often I reset to it several times during the show.

I also try to set my channel aux sends to the exact same levels regardless of the console I am working on, and then adjust the aux master level so the actual audio levels sent are correct to the effects.

Comps & Gates

Memorizing, documenting, and photographing the compressor and gate settings is important as well – not just the knob positions, but also the actual dB level of the thresholds, output makeup gain, as well as the attack times, release times and ratios.

I use the same settings on multiple compressor types with quite excellent results. Worldwide sonic consistency regardless of venue or system type is a challenging and worthy goal.

So let’s say you do all of the homework, studying, and learning your console setup. You’re now armed with the ability to walk up to any console and at least get close, even when you don’t have file on a USB stick.

I know this method works; in fact, it works so well that the console settings can even transfer over to live recording setups, mobile trucks, broadcasts and TV show gigs.

Next time I’ll further this discussion as well as share some best overall practices that apply to all live work, including festivals.

Read the rest of this post


About David

Dave Rat
Dave Rat

President, Rat Sound Systems
Dave Rat heads up Rat Sound Systems (, a leading sound reinforcement company based in Southern California, and has also been a mix engineer for more than 30 years.


Have something to say about this PSW content? Leave a comment!

Scroll past the ”Post Comment” button below to view any existing comments. Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

David Faulkner says

Really a great article. Dave Rat is human that truly loves the sport of sound.

Thank you.

Peter says

Great advice especially to me. Very handy, thanks Dave.

Tagged with:

Subscribe to Live Sound International

Subscribe to Live Sound International magazine. Stay up-to-date, get the latest pro audio news, products and resources each month with Live Sound.